Peace or armistice? The Treaty of Versailles, 28 June 1919

On June 28, 1919, at 3.12 pm, in the Hall of Mirrors of the historic Palace of Versailles, the German Social Democrat Hermann Müller, Foreign Minister for just over a week, and the Minister of the Colonies, the centrist parliamentarian Johannes Bell, signed, in the name of the German government, the peace treaty that formally … read more

The Egyptian uprising in 1919 and Wilson’s Fourteen Points

We often forget the tribute that the so-called persons of color gave to the Allied victory in the Great War: on almost 9 million people mobilized by Great Britain, for example, 2.7 million were non-British troops. Their blood tribute was very high: out of 910 thousand fallen, 177 thousand in fact belonged to colonial troops. … read more

Wilson, Bissolati, Mussolini, 11 January 1919

On the evening of January 11, 1919, Tommaso Marinetti and some of his followers, lucky enough to get the invitation cards, manage to reach the stages of the Scala in Milan, where he expects the intervention of Leonida Bissolati, socialist reformist, exponent during the Great War of democratic interventionism. Bissolati, a few days before, left … read more