War and independence in Afghanistan, 1919

Talks between the US government envoy, Zalmay Khalilzad, and representatives of the Taliban guerrillas are underway in Qatar: the latest press reports speak of a possible agreement, which would provide for the withdrawal of US troops from the country in exchange for the ceasefire and the disengagement of the increasingly undefined al Qaeda from Afghanistan. … read more

Allies, red danger and white terror – Hungary 1919

It was clear from the start that the peace of Versailles was not destined to bring peace to Europe. The most obvious, but little known, case was the conflict that broke out between Romania and Hungary at the end of July 1919. Interesting conflict, as revealing of how the winners of the Great War, especially … read more

Peace or armistice? The Treaty of Versailles, 28 June 1919

On June 28, 1919, at 3.12 pm, in the Hall of Mirrors of the historic Palace of Versailles, the German Social Democrat Hermann Müller, Foreign Minister for just over a week, and the Minister of the Colonies, the centrist parliamentarian Johannes Bell, signed, in the name of the German government, the peace treaty that formally … read more

Massacre at Amritsar, 13 april 1919

At nine o’clock in the morning of Sunday 13 April 1919, a peaceful crowd of Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims gathered since midnight in the grassy area of ​​just over two hectares, a sort of large square, the Jallianwala Bagh, in Amritsar, city of Punjab, north-western region of India, to celebrate the Baisakhi, the traditional Sikh … read more

The British Rowlatt Act against India national movement

British rule in India (British Raj) officially dates back to 1858. It was following the great Indian Revolt of 1857 (Revolt of the Sepoys), due in large part to the arrogant conduct of the East India Company, which until then had governed the subcontinent, which became the direct domain of the English Crown, which allowed … read more